A baker then, could also make a fortune, as happened for example to the freedman Marcus Virgilio Eurisace, whose tomb in Porta Maggiore tell us in the reliefs of the frieze the different stages of bread making, from grinding and sifting flour, to the mixture and the manufacture of baking bread. [7] The doles of bread, olive oil, wine, and pork apparently continued until near the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, although the decline in the population of the city of Rome reduced the quantities of food required. "From Quern to Computer: The History of Flour Milling, http://userhome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/anthro/jbeatty/CORESEA/TRADE_IN_ANCIENT_WORLD.pdf, https://www.historychannel.com.au/this-day-in-history/trajan-inaugurates-aqua-traiana/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cura_Annonae&oldid=984574228, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 20:57. Grain transport presented special problems. In 22 AD, the emperor Tiberius said that the Cura Annonae if neglected would be "the utter ruin of the state". Bread and circuses [17], The shipping lanes that connected Rome with its centers of grain supply (Egypt, North Africa, Sicily and perhaps other places.) The price of grain became a major issue when the Roman province of Sicily revolted repeatedly, thus pushing the price to unaffordable levels. The expression "bread and circuses" captures a certain cynical political view that the masses can be kept happy with fast food (think Cartman's "Cheesy Poofs" on South Park) and faster entertainment (NASCAR races, NFL games, and the like).In the Roman Empire, it was bread and chariot races and gladiatorial games that filled the belly and distracted the mind, allowing emperors to rule as … Severus also began providing olive oil to residents of Rome, and later the emperor Aurelian (270-275) ordered the distribution of wine and pork. The city of Rome grew rapidly in the centuries of the Roman Republic and Empire, reaching a population approaching one million in the second century AD. A modii of grain weighs six to seven kilograms. The ships involved in the grain trade were privately owned. The Enterprise crew investigates the disappearance of a ship's crew on a planet that is a modern version of the Roman Empire. In the Western Church the altar-breads were probably round in form. … Very cheap: panis primis: Bread made from coarse grains, a little better and a little more expensive: panis secundus: Bread made from coarse wheat flour: panis plebeius / panis cibarius: Camp or soldiers bread, made from wheat flour with bran The bread was dipped in wine to soften it. Casson calculated that the cargo capacity was 1200 to 1300 tonnes of grain. [10] By the 70s CE, the historian Josephus was claiming that Africa fed Rome for eight months of the year and Egypt only four. The Emperor Aurelian (270-275 CE) is usually credited with changing or completing the change of the food distribution system from grain or flour to bread, and adding olive oil, salt, and pork to the products distributed to the populace. Following the usual route along the south shore of Crete, Paul's ship was blown off course and wrecked on the island of Malta. Lionel Casson estimated that average time for the voyage was nearly 70 days. Recipe by Ambervim. Aper ita conditur: spogiatur, et sic aspergitur ei sal et cuminum frictum, et sic … As early as 440 BC, however,[53] the Roman Senate may have appointed a special officer called the praefectus annonae with greatly extended powers. Linn, Jason (Fall 2012), "The Roman Grain Supply, 441-455", Kessler, David and Temin, Peter (May 2007), "The Organization of the Grain Trade in the Early Roman Empire,". The Roman court system changed from Republic to Empire, and further changes occurred over the centuries of the Empire. Generally the Roman bread was known for its hardness, due both to poor quality flour (which absorb less water than the best), as to poor quantity and quality of the yeast used (prepared once a year at harvest time with grape juice and dough of bread). The role of the state in distributing the annona remained a central feature of its unity and power: "the cessation of this state function in the fifth century was a major factor leading to economic fragmentation, as was the end of the grain requisition for the city of Rome". Music. The political use of the grain supply along with gladiatorial games and other entertainments gave rise to the saying "Bread and circuses" from one of the bitter satires of Juvenal (60-140 A.D) as if the population of the city did nothing but live off free grain and go to entertainments (circus races were actually held on average only 17 days a year and gladiatorial shows 5–7 days in a year[citation needed]). Raisins, candied orange, … [44][45], The population of the city of Rome peaked at possibly more than one million people from the late 1st century to the 3rd century CE and thereafter declined by 400 CE to 700,000-800,000, between 400,000 and 500,000 in 452, and thereafter to a population estimated at only 100,000 in 500 CE, declining still further thereafter in the Middle Ages. Not terribly Roman in name, though you will find it on the table of almost every restaurant in one of Rome’s most Roman neighborhoods, Trastevere. (2017) "Urbanism and the division of labour in the Roman Empire." When the Romans invaded Greece their eating habits changed drastically. A dole of grain was given monthly to the poorer people of Rome. Here you have the majority of what made up an ancient Roman’s diet. Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven. The portion of bread kept to start the next batch was called leaven; it was the forerunner of today`s sourdough bread. Regular distribution began in 123 BC with a grain law proposed by Gaius Gracchus and approved by the Roman popular assembly. If ever you were itching for a chance to use Spelt Flour, here you go. Pane … A special monument to celebrate one of the oldest and most popular professions. Spain was also an important source of olive oil, and possibly grain. The bakers then obtained privileges and immunities from the public authorities and even a contribution by the state to start their business. Breakfast and Lunch Roman Style . [24], Grain from Egypt. It may have persisted into the 6th century. Writing in the early 6th century, Cassiodorus noted the large decrease in the population and the number of watermills. The provision of grain to Rome was a major shipping and administrative task for the Romans. The precise details of how grain was marketed in Rome, however, are a "major puzzle". the region centered on the ancient city of Carthage, present day Tunisia. The watermills constructed at Janiculum "were intended to centralize, regularize, and perhaps even deprivatize the city's milling operations. To ensure an uninterrupted supply of grain the Mediterranean sea lanes needed to be kept free of piracy, an ongoing military objective tasked to the Roman navy. Among the different types of mixtures, those in use in rural areas included legumes, acorns, chestnuts and other “poor”, while there were others more expensive and refined based on spices, milk, eggs, honey, oil; a luxury bread was the artolaganus, with honey, wine, milk, oil, pepper and candied fruit. If a workman was in a hurry or running late, he might stop at a bread shop to grab a loaf to eat on the way. Work out how you would need to scale up the ingredients for a class feast. [26] Grain from ancient Cyraenica (Libya) may have been important because an early harvest there could supply Rome before other grain-growing regions had been harvested. [8], The dole in the early Roman Empire is estimated to account for 15 to 33 percent of the total grain imported and consumed in Rome. A grain ship leaving Alexandria, would first steer north east to Cyprus, then follow the south coast of Asia Minor (21st century Turkey) westwards, and proceed along the south shore of Crete, stopping as needed at one of several ports en route. During the empire, this post became an important bureaucratic position to be filled by the senatorial elite prior to achieving a consulship. Casson reconstructed a voyage from Alexandria, Egypt to Rome. It was not feasible to supply Rome's needs by land transport. [33] The grain ships were propelled entirely by sails, and not by banks of oarsmen as were Roman warships. [29] On arrival in Rome, the grain was stored in large warehouses, called horrea, until needed. The harvest season for grain in ancient Egypt was from April to early June. Bread was so important to the ancient Romans that they gave bread away free of charge to unemployed Roman people. Water-driven mills with still greater capacity were first utilized in the 1st century BCE, but their development required a large investment in infrastructure, especially of aqueducts, and their use to grind nearly all of the grain for the city of Rome did not come until the late 2nd or 3rd centuries CE. The use of mills facilitated the grinding and the advances in screening techniques allowed to differentiate the quality of flour and semolina. "[19] Thus, a large fleet of seaworthy grain ships was required to bring grain from relatively nearby Sicily and Sardinia, more distant North Africa, and much more distant Egypt. They created their own corporation the collegium pistorum and came to conclude profitable contracts to supply bread to the authorities, for the free distribution to the people. [36], Bread was the most important item in the Roman diet. Among the foods of ancient Rome bread is one of the most documented in the literary sources, with frescoes and bas-reliefs which represent the stages of preparation and sale; even the carbonized loaves found in the ruins of Pompeii analyzed revealed their secrets. Hand-driven mills for grain were known in the 5th century BCE in Greece, and presumably spread to Rome shortly. In the first century BCE, the three major sources of wheat were Sardinia, Sicily, and North Africa, i.e. The Historia Augusta, states that Severus left 27 million modii in storage, enough for 800,000 inhabitants at 225 kilograms (496 lb) of bread per person per annum. Grain supply was an important issue for the Gracchi, with the elder brother Tiberius Gracchus arguing that consolidation of Roman agricultural lands in the hands of a few had pushed landless Romans into the city, where they found poverty rather than employment. [42], The conversion of the grain supply for the citizens of the city of Rome to a flour supply carried with it a host of problems. In ancient times the Greek bread was barley bread: Solon declared that wheaten bread might only be baked for feast days. [4], In the early centuries of the Republic (509-287 BC), the Roman government intervened sporadically to distribute free or subsidized grain to its population. Starting from the way in which flour was sifted there were the panis cibarius, secundarius, plebeius, rusticus. [51], In Constantinople, the grain supply was ended by the loss of Roman Egypt, first temporarily to the Sasanian Empire during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, and then permanently to the Rashidun Caliphate in the Muslim conquest of Egypt and much of the Levant. After the re-foundation of Byzantium by Constantine the Great (r. 306–337), the imperial city of Constantinople had its own cura annonae. Adult male citizens (over 14 years of age) of Rome were entitled to buy at a below-market price five modii, about 33 kilograms (73 lb), of grain monthly. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Hand-driven mills had only a small capacity of grinding grain into flour, serving an individual household or a few households. For breakfast, common Romans ate small, flat loaves of bread that were salted. [46] Due to its "decreasing population, smaller army, and more land to feed its population",[47][48] Rome did not need many of its watermills, storehouses, bakeries, and port and transportation facilities. Choose from contactless Same Day Delivery, Drive Up and more. Braided Breadsticks. "[49], The date when the Cura Annonae ended is unknown, but it may have lasted into the 6th century CE. TRECCIA. [12], Grain made into bread was, by far, the most important element in the Roman diet. 9-12. Throughout most of the Republican era, the care of the grain supply (cura annonae) was part of the aedile's duties. Research Roman musical instruments. [50] In 537 CE, the Byzantine General Belisarius and his army were besieged inside Rome by the Ostrogoths. [3] The population of the city grew beyond the capacity of the nearby rural areas to meet the food needs of the city. Panettone. The Goths blocked the aqueduct providing water for the watermills, thus limiting the capacity of Rome to make flour. [5][6], In the 3rd century AD, the dole of grain was replaced by bread, probably during the reign of Septimius Severus (193-211 AD). Charles, Michael and Ryan, Neal (2009), "The Roman Empire and the Grain Fleets: Contracting out Public Services in Antiquity," pp. Native to Milan, Panettone is one of the two Italian sweet yeast breads served mainly on Christmas day. Aurelian is also credited with increasing the size of the loaves of bread without increasing the price of a loaf, a measure that was undoubtedly popular with the Romans who were not receiving free bread and other products through the dole. After the re-foundation of Byzantium by Constantine the Great, the imperial city of Constantinople had its own cura annonae. Little is known about the initial distribution system for the flour produced by the watermills. Then, come back for more. The Greek slaves taught the Romans to use several different flours in a single loaf instead of one common flour as … J. R. Soc. Although that statement may ignore grain from Sicily, and overestimate the importance of Africa, there is little doubt among historians that Africa and Egypt were the most important sources of grain for Rome. [11] To help ensure that the grain supply would be adequate for Rome, in the second century BCE, Gracchus settled 6,000 colonists near Carthage, giving them about 25 hectares (62 acres) each to grow grain. Directed by Ralph Senensky. not 120), Casson, Lionel (1950), "The Isis and her Voyage,", Casson, Lionel, "Trade in the Ancient World,", Stone, David L. (Oct 2014), "Africa in the Roman Empire: Connectivity, the Economy, and Artificial Port Structures,", Boetto, Giulia, "Merchant Vessels and Maritime Commerce in Roman Times,", Rickman, Geoffrey (2008), "Ports, Ships, and Power in the Roman World,", Hirschfeld, Nicolle (1990), "The Ship of Saint Paul: Historical Background,". [54] An emergency cura annonae was an important source of influence and power for Pompey in his later career. On arrival in the port of Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber River, the grain was off-loaded from its transport ship and loaded onto barges which were hauled up the river by animal or man power to the city of Rome, approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) upriver. Grain was also collected as tax in kind from certain provinces; some of this was distributed to officials and soldiers and some was sold at market rates. [40] A famine (and resultant riots) in 190 CE caused by corruption in the grain distribution system influenced the Roman government under Emperor Septimus Severus to intervene and convert the distribution of grain to the populace into the distribution of flour. "The vast numbers of the Roman people in old time are evidenced by the extensive Provinces from which their food supply was drawn ...and the enormous multitude of mills, which could only have been made for use, not for ornament. The most appreciated grain was spelled, while rye and oats were not much esteemed, and barley indeed was considered fit only for slaves and soldiers. A kind of biscuits that had long kept was the panis militaris castrensis (reserved for soldiers), then the panis Nauticus (for sailors); also pretty tough was the panis autopyrus (full), and not to mention was the panis furfureus, for dogs! Platters and cooking pots could also be placed on top of the upper opening and used for baking or cooking, respectively. Rome imported most of the grain consumed by its population, estimated to number one million people by the second … Lunch, or prandium, was a similar meal, although it might include leftovers from the day before as well … The name pistores, originally reserved to slaves used for grinding the grains of spelled in the mortar, came to designate the actual bakers, who at first were mostly freedmen and citizens of low social status. Rome's navy was not an autonomous military branch in a similar sense to that of a modern navy, especially after Rome had annexed the entire Mediterranean coast. It consists of an introductory address and seven petitions. The grain was probably transported to the ports in four-wheeled carts drawn by four oxen, each cart carrying 350 kilograms (770 lb) to 500 kilograms (1,100 lb). Wine was such a popular drink among the Romans that it could be called their national drink. [38][39], A steady supply of water was needed for watermills and this came from the Aqua Traiana, an aqueduct bringing water some 40 kilometres (25 mi) from springs near Lake Bracciano to Janiculum hill just outside the walls of the city of Rome. The government of Rome encouraged building large ships for grain transport. These products had been distributed sporadically before Aurelian. Eat it on the go for a real Roman lunch break. "[41] Estimates of the date when the watermills came into operation vary, but it was probably in the early 3rd century. The Roman Legions. By Plinio the Elder we know that bread was known relatively late by the Romans, accustomed to eating unleavened bread and Polta, a thick soup made of wild grains, legumes and, when available, meat. It was "cheaper to ship grain from one end of the Mediterranean to the other" by sea than "to cart it by land some 75 miles [120 kilometers]. Lowering grain prices became an important part of the political platform of the radical popularist Saturninus, who acquired the office of plebeian tribune an unusual three times. [20] "The voyage...from Alexandria to Rome was a continuous fight against foul winds." A large part of the city's supply was obtained through the free market. The Greeks were better bakers. [27] The arrival each year of the first fleets of grain ships was an eagerly awaited event in Rome. The most famous circus, which was in Rome, was the Circus Maximus. Approximately 40,000 adult males were eligible for the grain. Wine. The various methods of cooking gave rise to the panis furnaceus (baked), to artopticus (home-baked in a vacuum), or to subcinerinus fucacius (baked under the ashes) and clibanicus, a cake baked on the outer wall of a red-hot pot. [58], With the devaluation of currency in the course of the third century, the army was paid in rationed supplies (annonae) as well as in specie from the later third century, through a cumbrous administration of collection and redistribution. The annona was personified as a goddess, and the grain dole was distributed from the Temple of Ceres. The emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641) was forced to end the grain supply after the shahanshah's Khosrow II's (r. 590–628) capture of Alexandria in 621.[52]. Ships of much larger capacity are suggested in Lucian and the Acts of the Apostles. The Isis was 55 metres (180 ft) in length and had a beam of more than a quarter of that. With the incorporation of Egypt into the Roman empire and the rule of the emperor Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE), Egypt became the main source of supply of grain for Rome. Rome was dependent upon the prompt arrival of imported grain.[18]. Rickman (1980), p. 264. The machinery of the Annona civilis became more complex over time. Acidic dough used to make Panettone is cured before being shaped into a cupola, which extends from a cylindrical base. [14] The total population of Rome assumed in calculating these estimates was between 750,000 and one million people. [1], The most important sources of the grain, mostly durum wheat, were Egypt, North Africa (21st century Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco), and Sicily. A Roman historian named Gaius Suetonius Tranquillas, who was the chief secretary of Emperor Hadrian and who had access to the imperial records, mentions Jesus in a section he wrote concerning the reign of Emperor Claudius. At the time of Cicero (early 1st century BC), there were two urban courts in the city of Rome: one for citizens and one for noncitizens. Cura Annonae was the term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the city of Rome. A type softer but not widespread was the panis parthicus, also called aquaticus as a spongy and able to absorb a greater quantity of water. It is unknown when the Cura Annonae ended. The grain was moved mostly by barge on the various distributaries of the Nile River to Lake Mareotis bordering the southern part of the city of Alexandria. Bread and Circuses. There it was inspected for quality and, when accepted, transported by canal to the port of Alexandria, the Great Harbor, where it was loaded on ships for Rome. Under the Principate, the position of praefectus annonae became permanent, while a range of privileges, including grants of citizenship and exemption from certain duties, were extended to ship-owners who signed contracts to transport grain to the city. The grain supply was a consistent plank in the popularist platform for political leaders who appealed to the plebs. Around the late fifth century BC appeared new hard and soft grains, probably originating in Sicily and Africa, of higher quality and more readily releasable … [21] Grain was packed into sacks, rather than carried loose in the holds of ships. "[23] Given also the time needed for loading and unloading the grain ships by hand, the ships traversing the Egypt to Rome route likely only completed one round trip per year. Grain that was wet could sink the ship by expanding and splitting the sideboards of the hull.[31]. [32] an estimate that has not been verified by archaeological findings. As the techniques of grinding and sifting the flour and the preparation and baking of bread were becoming more sophisticated, the production moved from the family to the “industrial”, thank to the work of skilled artisans (according to Plinio, starting from 171 BC). In chariot races, two- or four-horse chariots ran seven laps totaling anywhere from three to five miles. Shop Target for Roman Meal Breads you will love at great low prices. There were loaves of elongated shape and round loaves, with incisions to facilitate cross for the division into four parts (quadrae, from which the panis quadratus). [34], The voyage of Paul. Erdkamp, Paul, "The Food Supply of the Capital," in. [55] But the unpopularity of these laws led to more conservative laws attempting to rein in the Gracchi reforms such as the lex Octavia and the lex Terentia Cassia.[56]. [43] In the 4th century CE, Rome had 290 granaries and warehouses and 254 bakeries which were regulated and monitored by the state and given privileges to ensure their cooperation. Some had a capacity of carrying 50,000 modii (350 tonnes) or even more. The Roman government provided subsidies and tax exclusions to encourage shipbuilding and the grain trade and took the risk of shipping on itself by providing a form of insurance to ship owners. Romans loved chariot races, which were held on special racetracks called circuses. [13] Erdkamp estimated that the amount needed would be at least 150,000 tonnes, calculating that each resident of the city consumed 200 kilograms (440 lb) of grain per year. Ancient Roman Cereals. The population of the city of Rome declined precipitously during the 5th, the last century of the Western Roman Empire, and 6th centuries AD. Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist.It cannot be determined from the sacred text whether Christ used the ordinary table bread or some other bread specially prepared for the occasion. Experimental archaeology at Tell Halif, Israel Ethnoarchaeological studies show that after a fire fueled by kindling and animal dung is built on the floor of the tannur, the ashes are raked out of the bottom opening, before using the top opening to slap the dough onto the interior walls or even the floor to bake. With flour of superior quality (siliga) was produced the panis siligineus. Pictured below, the twisted pane is a tasty cross between bread and breadsticks. The official responsible for the provision of the alimenta was the Curator alimentorum. He spent the winter on Malta, then proceeded onward to Puteoli and Rome. Rome imported most of the grain consumed by its population, estimated to number one million people by the second century AD. Roman games included other type of equestrian events. Hanson J.W., Ortman S.G., The last known official to hold this post was Titus Flavius Postumius Quietus, probably during the early 270s. Prices in the city were invariably high, and merchants could count on making a profit. Wheat from the earliest days of the republic, already formed the basis of their diet mainly used in kind of porridges, hence their nickname "pultiphagonides" is to say "porridge eaters", given by their neighboring Greeks of Southern Italy. [30], Hundreds or even thousands of ships were required to transport grain to Rome. The archaeological records of the grain trade are sparse, due to the perishability of grain which has made its detection difficult for archaeologists.[2]. Rickman estimated that Rome needed 40 million modii (200,000 tonnes) of grain per year to feed its population. Barley. Cristofori, Alessandro "Grain Distribution on Late Republican Rome," pp 146-151. Roman games, called ludi, were probably instituted as an annual event in 366 BC. The aqueduct was inaugurated in 109 CE and the water it carried was used initially as drinking and bathing water. Animal-driven mills (usually using donkeys) with a much larger capacity appeared in Rome by the 3rd century BCE, and the establishment of bakeries probably accompanied the adoption of animal-driven mills. Lucian, c. 150 CE, described a very large grain ship taking shelter in the port of Piraeus, Greece. The Romans sometimes used a … Latin words for bread include panis, pane and panificium. Flour is much more perishable than grain, and its distribution would have to be carried out more often. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! (Letizia Staccioli Archeoclub of Italy, Rome office – Cerealia Festival Artistic Director). The first type of wheat used for making bread was therefore spelled from whose seeds, lightly toasted and grounded to liberate them from the chaff, Romans obtained the farrina (hence the term “flour” went on to state the product of the milling of any grain). It's more authentic in this recipe: it's what the Romans would have used. Learn a song about the Romans (like this one) and perform it to an audience. Several round trips per year could be accomplished from North Africa or Sicily. Taylor, Rabun (2010), "Bread and Water; Septimus Severus and the Rise of the curator Aquarum et Miniciae,", Linn, jason (Fall 2012), "The Roman Grain Supply, 442-455,", Twine, Kevin (1992), "The City in Decline: Rome in Late Antiquity,". Most of the horrea from the 1st century CE onwards were state-owned. Ancient Rome, The Archaeology of the Ancient City, The Feeding of Imperial Rome, Editors John Coulston and Hazel Dodge, 2000, reprinted 2011, pp. They bake a number of different types of bread, but the filone is the classic loaf, called “pane napoletana” by the people who work at Renella. In straight line distances (and sailing ships did not normally travel in straight lines), distances from Sicily to Rome were more than 500 kilometres (310 mi), from Carthage in North Africa more than 600 kilometres (370 mi), and from Egypt more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi). A dole of subsidized or free grain, and later bread, was provided by the government to about 200,000 of the poorer residents of the city of Rome, an early and long-lasting example of a social safety net. The ship was large, with 276 people aboard, counting both crew and passengers. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, and millets were all strong staples in a Roman diet, especially wheat and barley. Belisarius set up a ship mill on the Tiber River to grind grain and continue to provide the occupants of the city with bread. In 500 CE, the Ostrogoth king Theodoric the Great visited Rome and promised food to its inhabitants, possibly restoring the Cura Annonae or continuing it. [9], By the late 200s BCE, grain was being shipped to the city of Rome from Sicily and Sardinia. [35], Ship owners. These porridges (puls) are mainly based on … A regular and predictable supply of grain and the grain dole were part of the Roman leadership's strategy of maintaining tranquillity among a restive urban population by providing them with what the poet Juvenal sarcastically called "bread and circuses". Name: Small rolls, also oily honey cakes: libae: Bread made from coarse grains other than wheat. For those who were wealthier, a typical breakfast also included milk or wine, fruit, cheese, eggs and honey. From the deck to the bottom of the cargo hold was 13 metres (43 ft). had strategic importance. Roman armies hunted everything that was available, archaeological remains of wild animals show, says Thomas R. Martin, a professor in … Paul boarded a Rome-bound grain ship in Asia Minor. After passing through the Straits, large grain ships would dock at the port of Puteoli, near Naples, or after port improvements about 113 CE, at Ostia near Rome.

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