We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBM for substance addiction outcomes. Patients with cocaine dependence and PTSD, as compared to patients with only cocaine addiction and control participants, showed excessive cue reactivity to both drug- and trauma-related visual stimuli. A consistent feature of addiction is the attentional bias for drug-related stimuli (eg, drug paraphernalia). Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. Attentional bias (AB) is hypothesized to have a causal contribution to substance abuse, addiction development and, maintenance. Attentional Bias for Nondrug Reward Is Magnified in Addiction Brian A. Anderson, Monica L. Faulkner, Jessica J. Rilee, Steven Yantis, and Cherie L. Marvel Johns Hopkins University Attentional biases for drug-related stimuli play a prominent role in addiction, predicting treatment outcomes. ABSTRACT Aims Attentional bias for drug‐related cues has been associated with drug maintenance and relapse. (2008). Keywords: addiction, drug, Stroop test, attentional bias Iran has the highest number of narcotics abusers in the world per capita (2.8% of the population; United Nations, 2005) and regardless of the governmental efforts, drug abuse is still increasing among the population, particularly the young (Sarami & Ghomashchi, 2003). Most profound differences were found in the amplitude and latency of frontal P3a, and centro-parietal P3b ERP components. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions have been developed to address addiction by reducing attentional bias for substance-related cues. Drug dependence produces an attentional bias for the drug in question, causing addicted individuals to fixate on stimuli related to the substance in question. Attentional biases for drug-related stimuli play a prominent role in addiction, predicting treatment outcomes. 4, pp. (2008). 2014 September; 3(3): e18669. In this study, we investigated first whether pre-treatment impulsivity and attentional bias predict treatment outcome; next whether the drug modafinil given as an add-on treatment to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) improves impulsivity and attentional bias; and last, whether changes in impulsivity and attentional bias are related to improvements in treatment outcome. Journal of Neurotherapy: Vol. Attentional bias is one of the most studied cognitive processes in addiction. “Researchers have found that people who have eating disorders tend to pay more attention to stimuli related to food, while individuals experiencing drug addictions tend to be hyper-sensitive to drug-related cues. This study provides a systematic review of the effectiveness of ABM interventions in decreasing symptoms of addictive behaviour, taking baseline levels of attentional bias and changes in attentional bias into account. No significant correlation between attentional bias and drug use behaviors (total years, days in past 30 days and age to start cocaine use) was observed in cocaine-dependent subjects. A common type of Attentional Bias is one in which two conditions can be present (see the example below), meaning there are four possible outcomes. Conclusions Attentional bias may tap an important component of drug dependence as it is a predictor of opiate relapse. 12, No. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the following claims derived from contemporary theoretical models of attentional bias (AB) for food- and drug-related stimuli: (a) AB is a characteristic feature of obesity and addiction, (b) AB predicts future behavior, (c) AB exerts a causal influence on consummatory behavior, and (d) AB reflects appetitive motivational processes. For example, with regard to addiction, one influential model argues that attentional bias simply represents an output of the underlying neurobiological adaptations that drive drug-seeking behaviour (Robinson & Berridge, 1993). Attentional biases also develop for stimuli that have been paired with nondrug rewards in adults without a history of addiction, the magnitude of which is predicted by visual working-memory capacity and impulsiveness. Geeky Definition of Attentional Bias: Attentional Bias causes people not to examine all possible outcomes when making judgements.In other words, their attention is on just one or two of the possible outcomes. Further, attentional bias was reduced in both groups after therapy, independent of treatment condition. Measurement. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. Journal of Neurotherapy: Vol.