The purity of the juice imparts a special flavor to this style of rum. Light-bodied rum is sometimes referred to as white or silver rum. Pot stills are used in many of the traditional rums, though most now use continuous column stills. They also allow the production of lighter, cleaner rums. The cane is left standing and is only singed by the fire due to its high water content. There are also origin-specific styles like cachaça and rhum agricole available. The fact that ageing in oak barrels improves the raw rum was discovered when ships carried rum on the long passage to Europe, it arrived darker in colour and with an improved flavour. Modern column still technology allows light and extra-light rums to be produced efficiently and cheaply. The still is charged with the wash and then heat is applied to bring to the boil. This is a popular rum for creating flamed drinks because the high alcohol content makes it easy to burn. Some distillers use chilled heads on their retorts which condense the vapours as they rise up causing them to fall back into the chamber. The heaviest compounds, the 'high wines' (those with a high boiling point) come off the still last. Even if this is your first foray into rum, we think it’s OK to … You could even think of them as the desserts of the rum world. Rum is a liquor distilled from sugar. The pineapple infusion is sure… Distilleries producing light and heavy rums often blend the two to produce a rum having characteristics of both. Some say that every year of 'tropical ageing', where the oak's pores are wide open so allowing the rum to soak deep into the wood, is equivalent to three years in a cold warehouse were the pores will be more closed. The sweetness can vary widely and the flavor is also balanced with the smoothness, richness, smokiness, and drinkability. Overproof or high-proof rum is often only used as a float in cocktails. Rum definition, an alcoholic liquor or spirit distilled from molasses or some other fermented sugar-cane product. This is filled with high wines from the previous distillation, again diluted with water but to a higher strength. Reflux increases copper contact and effectively raises the boiling point so producing a lighter distillate. As the sugar processing industry becomes more efficient so the amount of rum that can be produced per ton of molasses is failing. This delicious concoction is the traditional rum punch recipe used in the West Indies, passed down for years. As for age statements, in many cases they are just that, statement and not fact. Losses in volume to due evaporation are also more exaggerated in hotter climates (around 6% per year as opposed to 3% in Scotland) and high humidity can mean an almost equal loss between alcohol and water, meaning that although the volume is lost the strength remains fairly constant. Additives used to boost a rum's flavour include prune wine, chaptalized fruit juice, boisse, sugar, spice and flavourings. Like all distillates, regardless of whether they are distilled in pot or column stills, all rums are clear when they condense after distillation. The cut cane is promptly transported to the mill where it is crushed in a machine. Making rum from scratch using molasses and sugar. When alcohol is concentrated during distillation, the levels of congeners are reduced. Almost any aged rum can be mixed into drinks and many can stand on their own and enjoyed straight. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Choosing a quality light or gold rum to stock in your bar is a good place to begin. The distillate from the pot still is directed into the first of two retorts, a copper chamber filled with low wines from the previous distillation diluted with water (to approx 50% alc./vol.). Rhum agricole must be produced in the French territories, most commonly the island of Martinique, and it is governed by an AOC (appellation d’origine controlle), similar to Cognac. No matter the base, the underlying flavor profile of rum is a sweet, toasted sugar. It is then spun in a centrifuge to separate the crystals from the liquid. Before bottling, quality rums are left to marry in tanks - this allows the different flavours and bouquets of the many rums in the blend to fuse together. It is at this blending stage where some of rums controversies occur. This is due to the rules of bourbon dictating that the whiskey must be aged in new white oak casks so once used they are useless to the bourbon industry, other than as a commodity to be sold to other distillers around the world. This process usually includes the fermentation of the juices of the sugarcane plant, as well as of molasses and other by-products of sugar production. If you said yes, chances are you're a fan of rum, which is the reason why piña coladas make you feel intoxicated. The most famous cachaça cocktail is the caipirinha, Brazil's national drink. These are made from the darkest molasses produced during the third boil while refining sugar. A decent white rum is fine, but I prefer a moderately aged, slightly dry spirit, as this adds some intrigue to the end product. Whatever the origins of the cask, ageing spirits in the humid/tropical climatic conditions typical of the Caribbean and South America will have a very different affect to that of somewhere like Scotland. Each of these will give the individual rum various and distinct characteristics. Today, rum is produced throughout the world. Depending where you are, the pulp waste can later be burned to generate power or to heat the still. Cooling jackets can be used to increase reflux and there is also a move to use vacuums in column stills which reduce the boiling points and so the temperature the still runs at. The higher alcohol content makes these a popular choice for lighting drinks on fire. It is distilled from fresh-pressed sugar cane juice using a Creole continuous column still. Ethanol alcohol and other desirable compounds are less volatile (slightly heavier) and so follow the low wines. Charcoal filtration may be used before and after ageing. The name is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée, meaning that calvados, Fruit cups, quintessentially English summertime thirst-quenching drinks, were invented by the Victorians and were originally a mixture of fruit, liqueurs, Archie Rose, a Sydney-based distilling company, have just taken a big gamble. So with rum what you see is not necessarily what you get. Light, gold, dark, spiced, and flavored rums are among the most popular. Try some of these: As with all rum, quality and price vary greatly from one brand to another. The use of sugar cane distinguishes rum from all other liquors. At the sugar mill, the cane is chopped and crushed to extract the juice which is boiled to reduce the water content and leave a syrup known as 'wet sugar', comprising approximately 30% sugar. The rate of fermentation and the alcohol level produced is partly governed by the levels of non-sugar dissolved solids, being mainly minerals and Potassium Chloride, high concentrations of which inhibit yeast growth. Some distillers increase the surface area of wood in the cask by inserting oak or charred oak chips. That man's name was Facundo Bacardi Masso and the drink was known as "aguardiente,"" the Spanish word for firewater. To prevent casks destined for extended ageing from gradually emptying over the years, it is common for casks to be topped up with rum from other casks in same batch. These are tied in elaborate shapes to represent a watchman, which the cutters believe will ward off the 'duppies' or mischievous spirits. Rum drinks range from hot to cold, easy to complicated. Perforated copper trays or 'plates' sit horizontally in each, like the floors in an skyscraper. They are often quite rich and surprisingly smooth. Charcoal filtration can also remove the colour imparted by age so a three year old rum may be crystal clear when bottled. The taller the stills, the more plates they contain and so the purer the alcohol (lighter rum) produced. © Copyright odd firm of sin 2020. Whether a cask is a 'first re-fill', meaning the cask was previously used to age another spirit and this is its first time it has been used to age rum. Many commercially produced flavored rums will use artificial and natural ingredients to add the desired flavor to a white rum base. Some newer rums are a blend of agricole and traditional, Rum can also be made from cane syrup, made by boiling cane juice to remove some of its water content. Sugar cane contains about 75% water, 10-16% sugar and 10-16% fibre. Rum 101. Also, never use overproof liquors of any kind in cooking or near an open flame because they are highly flammable. The harvested cane is washed, chopped into short lengths and milled (pressed) to extract the water and sugar juice. This, coupled with the higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, makes column stills much more economical to operate than pot stills. If you are already drunk, don't try to play with fire in your drinks. Appleton Estate master blender Joy Spence, the first woman to hold that job title, … The lightest of these, the 'low wines' (those with a low boiling point) will be given off first and many of these most volatile compounds are harmful. Many rums are blends of light and dark rums of different ages. Instead, it's often thought of as a unique distilled spirit that is its own category. Rum, distilled liquor made from sugarcane products, usually produced as a by-product of sugar manufacture. Or it is a second or third re-fill will make a huge difference to the effect the cask has on the maturing spirit. Fermentation can be a quick as 24 hours or as long as a fortnight. This is called reflux and it can also be achieved by the way the head on the pot still is shaped. White rum: Also known as light rum, white rum is the most common type of rum used in a classic Rum and Coke. Colour in rum is the result of ageing in oak casks (and also the possible addition of caramel colour). See more. Rum and Coke, or the Cuba libre (/ ˈ k juː b ə ˈ l iː b r eɪ / KEW-bə LEE-bray, Spanish: [ˈkuβa ˈliβɾe]; literally "Free Cuba"), is a highball cocktail consisting of cola, rum, and in many recipes lime juice on ice. There are a number of styles of rum produced. Besides adding a rich, sweet flavor to cocktails, dark rums are the preferred sipper of the rum family, especially fine rums like Angostura 1824. The inside of these casks are charred at the cooperage when first made. Rum, like most alcoholic drinks, is a misunderstood and unsung hero. While cachaça was once only available in South America, it's enjoying worldwide fame today. In Jamaica it is common for the cutters to leave an odd cane or two standing at the edge of the field. This taste profile is a result of either the production of congeners (organic compounds produced during production) or the addition of caramel. Rum is termed 'light' or 'heavy' depending the level of flavour components or 'congeners' - products of fermentation that are not ethyl alcohol. Rum is an alcoholic spirit made from sugar cane. In addition, yeast also initiates chemical reactions in the wash to create compounds such as aldehydes, esters and acids which are collectively known as congeners. The variety has grown to rival the number of flavored vodka options available. The crushing extracts the sugar cane juice from the fibrous pulp. Aged rums will obtain their golden color from the barrels that they are aged in. Rhum agricole is noted for its grassy, sweet taste because sugar cane is a grass. The type of yeast used varies tremendously from country to country and distiller to distiller. Thus a good sugar factory will produce bad molasses as it will have efficiently extracted most of the sugar. It can be used in anything from the great tropical drinks of the tiki scene to the warm drinks in the winter. White rum is made from byproducts of sugarcane, including molasses and juice. It is produced in more than 80 … Another rum made directly from sugar cane juice, cachaça gained some popularity in the U.S. following the 2016 Olympics. Appleton Estate. The level of these (esters, aldyhydes and lower alcohols) is dependent on the length of the fermentation and the purity to which it was distilled. Once a field of cane is ready to be harvested, that particular field is sometimes burnt to remove the leaves (and scorpions and such like). Rum is produced from Genus Saccharum officinarun, the giant grass that’s better known as sugar cane. Heavy-bodied or dark rums are typically used in rum punches. Light rums tend to have a short fermentation while heavy pot still rums are usually distilled from a wash formed by a long fermentation. Rums may be 95% column still with just 5% or even less pot still to add character and flavour. This mixture is boiled and then cooled to encourage the sugar crystals to enlarge. Light rums tend to originate from countries originally colonised by the Spanish, such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. Put simply steam is introduced at the bottom of the still and the wash mid way up. Simple column stills (like that designed by Aeneas Coffey) consist of two tall columns, one called an 'analyzer column' and the other the 'rectifying column'. Rum distinguishes itself from other spirits by the plant from which it is made. The old rhyme goes, 'One of sour, two of sweet, three … Flavoring rum by adding spices and aromatics during distillation became popular in the latter part of the 20th century. In the case of the best producers and regulated markets, these age statements (rightly) represent the age of the youngest rum in the blend. Distillation works on the principle that alcohol boils at a lower temperature (78.3°C /165°F) than water (100°C /212°F). Once the cane is burnt it must be quickly harvested and then milled within 24 hours to prevent deterioration of its sugars and bacterial infection. A longer, slower fermentation will result in a heavier, more acidic wash due to other contaminating bacteria also given time to reproduce during the process. Many of the early Caribbean rums were produced with molasses and "skimmings" from the production of sugar. White rum can simply be a sugar cane distillate watered down and bottled. It's worth remembering that distillation can only separate and remove flavours while fermentation generates flavour in the first place. Some stills are very simple, while others have devices which allow the distiller more control. You can also find mango, strawberry, and many other flavors to choose from. Most will have a sweet flavor. In general, heavily-bodied rums are those with more congeners and they tend to be made in pot (alembic) stills. This method of rum production is common on the French islands, particularly Martinique where it is called 'rhum agricole'. The crushed pulp waste is burned to generate power to crush the cane and sometimes to heat a distillation column. Rum is one of the oldest distilled spirits and it has one of the most colorful histories of any alcoholic beverage. Heavy rums traditionally come from former French and English colonies, including Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Barbados, Guyana and the Virgin Islands. The Caribbean Rum Marquee for example, presently proves little else than that a rum originated in the Caribbean. It is the most common style of rum and is a very subtle liquor, much like vodka with a sweet tooth. The third batch of sugar produced by this process is known as Low-grade sugar and this is used to mix with the next batch of syrup to start the process again. The level of impurities in light rum is less than a third of those found in heavy rums. Look for bottles like Cruzan Black Strap and Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum. The sugar and molasses produced by the first process are termed A-grade and the second B-grade. Rum can also be made from cane syrup, made by boiling cane juice to remove some of its water content. It's also common to find them mixed along with a light rum in many tiki cocktails such as the popular hurricane. In the US, rum is defined as a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses or other sugar cane byproducts at less than 95% abv and bottled at at least 40% alcohol by volume. That rum wash currently contains some undesirable contents that you’ll need to separate out and dispose of. Rum produced from a pot still or single distillation column is usually described as heavy. The compounds are flavoursome and depending on the type of rum to be produced, their formation will be encouraged or discouraged by the type of yeast used and the temperature of the fermentation. The resulting rum is equally as dark, rich, and thick. Like rhum agricole, cachaça is location-dependent and can only be made … Others portray the average age of the rums in the blend and some are simply meaningless. Medium-bodied rums are often called gold or amber rum. The hot steam rises through the still with each floor or plate acting to distil the wash with heavier compounds unable to rise to the next floor so falling while lighter compounds vaporise and ascend the still. As in Cognac and Scotland it is usual for pot still rums to be double distilled - put through the pot still twice with the distillate collected from the first distillation producing a distillate with an alcohol strength in the low twenties and the second distillation typically being over 70% alc./vol.. A mentioned above the distiller must judge when to make the cuts during distillation so controlling what congeners are retained and discarded. Rum can be made by distilling the beery type liquid produced from fermented fresh sugar cane juice. For rum production ideally molasses should have at least 52% sugar content but sadly for the distillers there is no specification for molasses as this is a waste product of sugar processing. Photo by Alex Lau. Casks may be scraped clean to remove any previous charring, and/or re-charred before being filled with rum: the quality of these casks, what they previously held, how many times they are refilled and their treatment dramatically affects the character they impart to the rum stored within them. They vary greatly in age, with the older rums costing more than younger bottlings. Rum is made throughout the world and, while the Caribbean is best known for its rum, there are some fantastic brands produced elsewhere. BEST OVERALL. It's always a good idea to read the labels so you know what you're buying, especially when it comes to the potential of additives. This can add some underlying whiskey-like flavors to the rum, something you'll also find in many tequilas. Put simply the yeast eats sugar and in doing so produces alcohol, heat and carbon dioxide. The type of wood used is often the determining factor in the color of rum produced in the end. Often described as the 'cut', it this proportion of the run which will be used to make the finished rum. In the Caribbean the cane is usually cut once a year, while in South American sub-tropical climates it is possible to crop twice a year. Rum is produced throughout the world and each region and country have different laws and traditions that are used in its production. Like most rums, it can be mixed into almost any cocktail you can think of. This caramelises natural sugars on the wood's surface increasing the vanillins. Yet, it is a fantastic mixer for a variety of cocktails, including those that typically use a standard rum. These rums are generally aged in stainless steel tanks for up to a year and filtered before bottling. Column stills are also known as 'continuous stills' because, as their name suggests, they can be run continuously without the need to stop and start between batches as in pot stills. These are undesirable compounds, partly due to being tainted as these first vapours effectively clean the still from the previous distillation. The sweet taste of rum makes it a versatile mixer and it is essential for any well-stocked bar. It is typical for rum distillers to talk about three or four-step fermentation in reference to the number of ever larger vessels used between propagation and the fermenters. Many rum distillers will also use old bourbon barrels for aging because they cannot be reused in that whiskey's production. Because these rums are in contact with the wood for a longer time, they naturally pick up the flavors and colors of the barrel. The sugar found on your supermarket shelf, whether white or brown was produced from sugar cane juice and regardless of its end colour was originally brown - white sugar is the result of a further industrial process. The process of extracting sugar from cane juice produces a by-product called molasses and this is what most rum is made from. Many rums are then aged in wood casks. Pot stills are the simplest and the original type of still. The skill of the distiller is to use the distillation process to separate and collect the alcohols and flavour compounds (congeners) wanted in the finished rum. Rum is a hard alcohol made from fermented sugar. There are many different varieties of sugar cane and the variety and the region where it’s grown significantly affect the profile of the rum produced from it. Sure, alcoholism is a rising problem and it had led to many deaths, broken families and illnesses. The Brazilian rum known as cachaça differs from others because it skips the molasses and instead uses pure sugar cane juice in the distillation process. By the mid-1700s, rum was being made throughout the Caribbean and South America. This syrup is clarified and mixed with sugar crystals, which provide a core for the dissolved sugar in the syrup to crystallise on. Coconut rum and spiced rum are the most popular and have been around the longest. Thus Trinidadian rums taste very different to Jamaican rums or Martinique rums. After six years or so it was common to plant another crop to reinvigorate the soil but modern fertilisers are now often used to stretch a few more years of cane growth. mixing molasses with the solution skimmed off the sugar cane juice after it is boiled Rum is made from sugarcane, a crop that Christopher Columbus introduced to the Americas in the 1400s. Get our free book when you sign up for our newsletter. The pH of the molasses will also affect fermentation and ideally will be in a range between 4.4 to 4.6 and this may be adjusted but the addition of the acidic residue (lees) left in the still after an earlier distillation. The molasses-cane juice mixture is then fermented and distilled. On rare occasions, a natural infusion of fruits or herbs is used. The hot vapour causes the liquid in the 'low wine retort' to boil and so concentrate the strength of the vapour which then moves on the second retort. This filters harsh and undesirable components from the rum and different types of charcoal can be used to remove different substances and so "smooth" the rum. A subcategory of dark rum is those called blackstrap. My most recent batch was made with a golden rum (80-proof) from St. Vincent. The rums produced in tropical climates will generally be aged for a shorter period of time than those in cooler climates. This process of distilling the fermented rum wash will make for a purer and more concentrated spirit. The two columns are linked, the second further purifying the vapours from the first while at the same time heating the wash that will charge the first (analyzer) colum. These are the kind of stills used in Scotland to make malt whisky and France to make cognac. How to use rum in a sentence. In practice distillation is a lot more complex with numerous variables affecting the final distillate produced - mainly the different boiling points of the various different kinds of alcohol and their particular flavour compounds. This will be the most used bottle because it's versatile and required for the majority of rum … Rum is one of the major liquors in the world, with a history steeped in the myths of piracy, the Caribbean, and slavery. The odour, texture and taste of light rums are more subtle and refined than those of heavy rums, which have a heavy, syrupy flavour to match their dark colour. There are some exceptions, including overproof rums which can reach 160 proof. It is common for stills with retorts to have tanks under each retort where the low wines and the high wines are sent in preparation for charging the retorts above for the following distillation. ('Fancy molasses' is a term for 'inverted sugar' syrup where sucrose has been converted to glucose and fructose with acid or enzymes.). The majority of rum is bottled at 40 percent alcohol by volume (80 proof). This is the rum you’re going to want to add to your piña coladas. Some of these heavier congeners are oily and are referred to as fusel oils. In the 1850s, a Spanish wine merchant living in Cuba set out to improve upon a cheaply made alcoholic drink that was common in the area. Extensively they are glorified copper kettles - indeed in some countries such as the Netherlands even call them 'kettles' rather than stills. Thus each island and country where rum is produced tends to have its own style, favoured by the native population who have grown-up drinking that style of rum. Light-bodied rum is sometimes referred to as white or silver rum. I wanted to make some rum so that I could make my own Captain Morgans Spiced Rum you will need 1 x 25L fermentation vessel a long spoon, you can get these from homebrew shops yeast nutrient, you can substitute tomato puree for this if you have trouble getting hold of yeast nutrient. For example the first retort may contain low wines mixed with fermented wash, dunder and even some high wines. Conversely, some aged rums are charcoal filtered to remove any colour and are bottled completely clear. Dunder is the term given to lees which have been left in open dunder pits to concentrate the ester content and the acetic/butyric acids. In rum making one of the common additions to pot stills are retorts. Cachaça is one of the sweetest rums available, though many people—particularly in Brazil—don't like to categorize it as a rum. As in the first retort, the vapour causes the liquid to boil and the alcohol strength of the vapour is boosted a second time.

what is rum made from

Kieran O'brien Entrepreneur, How To Calculate Return On Selling Put Options, National Quality Forum Glassdoor, Why Do Mangroves Grow In Marshy Areas, What Type Of Climate Does Belize Have, Types Of Adamantium, Plato: Political Philosophy,